Workshops at Managing Antimicrobial Resistance through Behaviour Change 20-21 October 2020

Workshops at Uppsala Health Summit offer and require intense work with co-delegates from a wide range of professional fields and with different roles in society. Together, you will develop suggestions that will contribute to well-needed implementation of research and innovations for better global health.

Participants at Uppsala Health Summit participate in one workshop per day.

Why not practice knowledge? The art of disease prevention

This workshop will focus on how to move from awareness to sustainably modified behaviors in infection control measures, from normative evidence-based guidelines to practice. Bringing two sectors together on a common theme - sectors with potentially seemingly different drivers and solutions - can lead to insights that help us move forward.

More information on this workshop will follow shortly.

Workshop prepared by:

  • Ulf Magnusson, Professor, Animal Reproduction at the Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
  • Birgitta Lytsy, Senior Infection and Control Physician, Uppsala University Hospital
  • Christina Greko, Associate Professor at the Department of Animal health and Antimicrobial strategies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, National Veterinary Institute
  • Leif Östman, Professor at Department of Education, Uppsala University

Lots of talk but little action: What’s hindering the implementation of incentives to stimulate antibiotics R&D?

This workshop invites stakeholders from the private, public and non-profit sectors to discuss which obstacles are currently blocking the full implementation of three main incentives identified in academic research as well as in policy and NGO analyses: Market Entry Rewards, Milestone-based Prizes and Pipeline Coordinators. The aim of the workshop is not to evaluate the strength and weaknesses of these incentives per se, but to identify the hindrances blocking their implementation.

In order to address the innovation drought in the antibiotics field, academic research and policy as well as NGO analyses singled out several incentives to stimulate antibiotic R&D and the launch of new drugs. However, while the incentives and their possible effects have been identified, researched and analyzed over the last 5 years or so, most of them are still far from being fully implemented. In a BBC interview last year, Lord Jim O´Neil expressed his disappointment claiming that there have mostly been “empty words” from global policy makers. Still, public and private R&D actors, healthcare and industry have all clearly expressed their need for incentives, in order to reach behavioral changes on a systemic level. Especially, these actors have expressed the need for incentives ‘pull’ mechanisms, as well for improved coordination and continuity of innovation support in the antibiotics pipeline.

Workshop prepared by:

  • Enrico Baraldi, Professor, Industrial Engineering & Management, Uppsala University
  • Olof Lindahl, Associate Senior Lecturer at Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University
  • Alexandra Waluszewski, Professor at Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Centre, Uppsala University

How to influence mental barriers to modified consumer behavior in retail

The aim of the workshop is to discuss the possibilities to change consumer behavior towards purchasing groceries produced without harmful use of antibiotics.

This workshop discussion will be guided by the following questions:

  • How can we nudge consumers towards a more sustainable purchase behavior?
  • How can we use benefits from social norms to overcome the mental barriers of consumer purchase behavior?
  • How can we use the emotional negative shame to nudge consumer towards a more sustainable antibiotic purchase behavior?

Workshop prepared by:

  • Anna-Carin Nordvall, Senior lecturer at Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University
  • Mirko Ancilotti, Doctoral/PhD student at Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics & Bioethics (CRB), Uppsala University

Antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria in the environment, how can behaviour change be a solution?

Attention is growing around the issue of pharmaceuticals in the environment and its impact on water. As antibiotics even in low concentrations may induce resistance, the main concern is that resistance in the environment will get transferred to the clinical pathogens (for example, through horizontal gene transfer) leading to untreatable infectious diseases. However, so far the problem has mainly been described. Much more efforts are needed towards finding focused solutions to reduce the problem globally. 

Water sampleThe purpose of this workshop is to discuss possible behavior modification actions to reduce the spread of antibiotics in the environment. The issue of antibiotics in the environment is very broad and cuts across all sectors and actors of society. Thus we need to find and address the key points where interventions can be most effective or most easily implemented, and where behavior change can really make a difference. Further, we need to discuss the situation in countries at all income levels and with different possibilities for mitigating strategies. Recommendations directed towards various actors and functioning in a range of different contexts will be presented.

This workshop is especially recommended for legislators/policymakers/governmental agencies, venture capitalists, industry (producers of substances, formulated medicines, diagnostics, as well as producers of meat and water for sale, including bottled water), international organisations, professionals e.g. prescribers for humans as well as animals, pharmacy organisations, consumers, persons responsible for waste treatment, risk assessors.

Workshop prepared by: 

  • Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg, Professor, Global Health, Karolinska Institutet

Making Sense of Antimicrobial Resistance: Communicate for Change

This workshop will bring together communications experts, experts in animal and human health, journalists, scientists, and policy makers to explore how communication could lead to behavior change. The aim is to spur interactions between different disciplines to discuss effective communication tactics and successful messaging on complex topics.

Despite the looming crisis of antibiotic resistance being well understood scientifically, the response so far has not been proportionate to the scale of the problem. One reason is the failure to effectively communicate the urgency of the issue. This is in part due to the complexity of the problem, a tendency to rely on technical language, and difficulty in tailoring messages to different contexts and stakeholders.

Drawing on principles of behaviour change communication, this workshop will explore ways to create narratives and to tailor and deliver messages on antibiotic resistance to different stakeholders. The three main target groups will be the three P:s - politicians, health professionals, and the general public. Behaviour change communications is based on the assumption that human behaviour is influenced at individual, family and peer network, and societal levels. The factors that drive change include knowledge, motivation, ability to act, and social norms. Communication and awareness-raising are crucial to bring about large-scale change and to create structures that support the desired behaviour, in order to clear the path for new habits.

The three Ps have different roles in addressing antibiotic resistance. The public needs easily accessible, correct and understandable information to allow them to make the right decisions regarding their family member’s and their own health. Health professionals need access to technical information and systems that allow them to follow best practices. Politicians need to understand the urgency and the complexity of the issue in order to respond appropriately.

Workshop organized by:

  • Linus Sandegren, Project Coordinator at Uppsala Antibiotic Center, Uppsala University.
  • Eva Garmendia, Project Coordinator, Uppsala Antibiotic Center, Uppsala University.
  • Maria Pränting, Scientific Coordinator, ReAct, Uppsala University.
  • Alexandra Hoegberg, Head of Global Communications, Uppsala Monitoring Centre.

Children and the Wild: Potentials and Perils in Human-Animal encounters

How can creation and sustainable adaptation of health information enable children to relate to the ‘wild’, i.e. the not fully controllable, aspects of zoonosis and antimicrobial resistance in encounters with animals while retaining the learning potential of such encounters? 

Animal proximal practices i.e. practices involving encounters between humans and animals can take a range of expressions across the world. From the everyday practices of children living with and tending to animals in their homes, to the planned educational activities in which children visit animals at for example city farms. While research indicates that each human-animal encounters, as part of animal proximal practices, has the potential of providing a range of benefits for both human and children’s well-being and learning, these potentials also comes with recognizable perils. These perils can be described as taking the form of the ‘wild’ aspects of zoonotic diseases and antimicrobial resistance in which both children and animals become exposed. While many aspects of human-animal encounters are possible to control, on-going microbial processes are difficult to fully control, especially if the potential learning benefits of such encounters are to be retained.

How can we provide opportunities for children to have positive learning encounters with animals while addressing the perils of the ‘wild’ in these encounters? Significant information materials have been developed as part of efforts to address these perils but the question remains how to make this information relevant over time; to the specific animal proximal practices and to the children whether they occasionally visit or live with the animals in their everyday lives? Furthermore, what are the opportunities to ‘inform’ about the perils while not undermining the learning potentials of human-animal encounters? Perhaps, there is a need to involve the practitioners in animal proximal practices as well as would be visitors and learners in adapting information and educational materials to assure its relevance today and in the future. Who come to be involved will of course depend whether the practices discussed are children’s’ on-going everyday practices or practices that children come to visit, whether in the global south or global north.

The purpose of the workshop is to explore the relationship between health information regarding the potentials and perils of human animal-encounters and health-promoting practices. Starting in workshop participants’ experiences of health information, participants will be able to reflect on, re-examine and re-actualise these experiences in relation to the topic of the workshop. Through a series of workshop exercises, the participants will engage with a number of questions. These include: how to enable the co-creation of understandings (meaning making) of information relating to health, how to facilitate the critical evaluation of information relating to health and how to support conscious making of health-related decisions and actions.

The workshops will progress from the participants reflecting on how to support contextually relevant understandings of health-related information, via the re-examination of ways to facilitate the critical evaluation of health-related information, to re-actualise experiences in formulating visions and action plans of how to enable the conscious making of health-related decisions and actions.

The resulting action plan(s) could be used to support practitioners, teachers, educators in informal education, policy-makers politicians, and others to bridge the implementation gap. This gap exists between health-related ‘information’ and health-promoting practices that emphasises the potential of children’s learning encounters with animals while consciously addressing the perils that such encounters involve in terms of the ‘wild’ i.e. not fully controllable aspects of zoonotic diseases and antimicrobial resistance.

Workshop prepared by:

  • Martin Mickelsson, Researcher, Dept. of Education/SWEDESD, Uppsala University, Sweden
  • Tanja Strand, Researcher, National Veterinary Institute, Sweden

Where is our antibiotics? Three possible solutions to address antibiotic shortages and improve antibiotics supply globally

This workshop aims to discuss possible policy and industrial solutions to maintaining the value of existing antibiotics for future generations.

Antibiotic shortages are becoming a serious problem globally as supply is patchy and at risk of collapse. Company withdrawals from one or several markets jeopardize availability and many low-income countries, where the needs are greatest, have low access to essential drugs. For many antibiotics, supply chains rely on just a handful of producers per active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). The reasons for poor availability and access include low profitability for antibiotic providers, weak supply chains, unbalances in the API sector, and lack of coordination between the various actors involved in the antibiotics field.

The Swedish network PLATINEA  - a multi-sectorial collaboration platform to preserve and enhance the value of existing antibiotics – have identified more than 30 different approaches to making the supply more secure.

  • In this workshop, we will focus of three of these strategies  and how to overcome obstacles for their implementation; namely 1) Increase transparency of all antibiotic supply chains; 2) Improve profitability throughout the supply chain starting from increased reimbursement and more certainty for suppliers (e.g. long term contracts); both which will enable investments in new and upgrades factories (so as to counter risks of adverse events such as production failures and environmental pollution).
  • A secondary desired outcome of the workshop is explore opportunities for expanding on the concept of PLATINEA and establishing an international platform for making the antibiotic market less fragile.

Workshop prepared by:   

  • Enrico Baraldi, Professor, Industrial Engineering & Management, Uppsala University, Project manager PLATINEA.
  • Cecilia Nilsson, PhD, Collaboration manager at UU Innovation, Deputy Project-manager PLATINEA
  • Sofia Wagrell,  Lecturer at Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Uppsala University

Teaching AMR: Schools as change agents

In this workshop, we will bring together a group of educators, curriculum experts, policy makers and health experts to discuss the role that schools can play in giving young people competence to act responsibly and preventively and when antibiotics are necessary, to use them wisely.

In order to address the multi sectorial nature of AMR there is a need for teaching that make students pay attention to, and see connections between the many concurrent perspectives of relevance such as medical, ecological, technical, ethical, social and economic. The workshop will address what young people need to know to be and become action-competent in relation to AMR issues, and how this competence is best taught in the context of a formal education system. The workshop discussion will be guided by the following questions:

  • What is the basic knowledge a student/community citizen need to know, including both facts and values, to develop action competence in relation to AMR issues.
  • How do we work to enable science (biology) teachers to feel confident in teaching issues of high complexity, including multiple perspectives?
  • How is it possible to teach a topic which might have very severe consequences, without students getting scared or disillusioned for the future?
  • How do we work to accumulate and disseminate experiences and build a knowledge base around teaching about AMR?

Workshop prepared by: 

  • Eva Lundqvist, Senior Lecturer at Department of Education, Uppsala University
  • Malena Lidar, Senior Lecturer at Department of Education, Uppsala University